This is the definitive piece on MK-Ultra. It was first published on January 28, 2016, in Veterans Today. Then all over the internet. It would be published in hardcopy by Nexus Magazine in volume 23, number 3, in the April/May issue of 2016 and the number 4 issue for June and July and subsequently be translated into at least a half a dozen languages.
There were thirty-three subprojects for MK-Ultra that to this very day are beyond top secret. When MK-Ultra came to light in the seventies these projects were hidden behind the National Security Act but when you throw your lead bacteriologist out a thirteenth story window in front of Madison Square Garden in a macabre demonstration of Masonic omnipotence certain things can be assumed. One of them is the thirty-three secrets still protected today by the National Security Act are biological in nature. From triggering extinction events to controlling humans through the bacteria they consist of it has all become just another day at the office in places like Camp Detrick, Porton Down, Edgewood and the Dugway Proving Grounds.
Allowing these latter-day sorcerers and professional poisoners to exist in our midst carte blanche will perhaps be the last mistake the human race ever makes. There was always bound to be a COVID, and it’s bound to get worse. – Jack Heart, September 30, 2020
In 1922, the great Irish novelist James Joyce published his landmark work Ulysses. It’s said that he had been commenting on the times when he wrote “I have to turn my head until my darkness goes.”
By 1966 in homage to that line, the iconic British rock and roll band The Rolling Stones would plead to “see the sun blotted out from the sky.” They exhorted the empire’s children to “Paint it Black!”
No doubt by 1944, when they saw which way the wind was blowing, the empire had already decided to Paint it Blue, all of it. This is a story about Bluebirds and Bluebooks, Have Blue, Project Blue Beam and a Blue Planet Project. But like every other story it has a beginning which along with its ending is the only part that is really true...
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In 1947 Andrija (Henry) K. Puharich received his medical doctorate from Northwestern University through the Army Specialized Training Program. While he had still been in school, he had burst into the field of cognitive science with his ground-breaking paper: Theory of Nerve Conduction. The paper postulated that neuron units radiate and receive waves of energy in the ultra-shortwave bands below infrared and above the radar spectrum; effectively making them a biological radio, a receiver-transmitter.
Puharich’s theory was an epiphany for José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado, who held a fellowship at Yale at the time Puharich published and is widely believed to have been the lead technical scientist in the CIA’s infamous MK Ultra project. About a half a decade later Delgado would co-author his first paper on implanting electrodes into human brains. He would go on to author one hundred and thirty-four scientific publications over the next two decades on electrical stimulation of cats, monkeys and humans.
A born showman, Delgado once had a bull with one of his patented ‘stimoceiver’s’ implanted in its brain charge him in the middle of a bull ring in Cordoba Spain. Unperturbed, he pressed a button on his hand-held remote control and stopped the beast in mid charge. He was an outspoken proponent of a better world through cybernetic mind control. He even wrote a book on the subject titled Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilised Society. He was the ideal villain, while Puharich worked from the shadows... Interning Puharich carried out experiments with drugs that were sponsored by Sandoz Chemical Works, the pharmaceutical company that developed LSD.
During that period, he was influenced by the pioneering work of Joseph Banks Rhine, the founder of parapsychology and upon completion of his Internship Puharich studied ESP as an extension of his work with nerve conduction at university. Always in the mood for ‘explanations’ he once remarked that what he was “trying to establish is that the brain is an area wherein is localized the cell energy of the body. I shall label this cell energy ‘dynamics.’ I further venture to say that transference of dynamics from one person to another is possible.” (1)
Puharich pointed out that it was common knowledge “that there are people who can thrill and exhilarate one, and that there are others who simply bore and fatigue one. This implies that there is a wireless, touchless transfer of this vital substance. If dynamics can be transferred from one organism to another, why cannot that other function of the mind – thought, also be transferred from one mind to another mind? It is also conceivable that dynamics not only passes freely between persons, but also dissipates out into the atmosphere.” (2)
In 1949 Puharich met Eileen Garrett, the founder of the Parapsychological Foundation in New York City (NYC). She would introduce him to John Hays Hammond Jr, the man who would be his closest friend for the next decade and in Puharich’s own words his “mentor.” (3)
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia hails Hammond as “The Father of Radio Control.”
That means sending signals to remote controlled devices. A product of Yale and filthy rich from birth, Hammond passed away in 1965 at seventy-six, owning 800 foreign and domestic patents on more than 400 inventions, primarily in the fields of radio control and naval weaponry.
By 1929 Hammond had built his own castle replete with drawbridge overlooking Gloucester Harbor in Massachusetts. It’s now a museum offering guided tours of its legendary Roman, medieval and renaissance art collection.
Most of the facts about MKUltra come from affidavits and testimony given to the Rockefeller Commission, then the Church Committee and the single surviving official report that they managed to get their hands on. The report was prepared by the Inspector General’s office in 1963 when the surreptitious administration of drugs to unwitting test subjects in the MKUltra Program was supposedly terminated.
The report defines MKUltra as “research and development of chemical. biological. And radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior.” It goes on to say “additional avenues to the control of human behavior had been designated . . as appropriate to investigation under the MKultra charter, including radiation, electroshock. various fields of psychology, sociology, and anthropology, graphology, harassment substances, and paramilitary devices and materials.” (4)
Any other reliable information about MKUltra is gleaned from testimony given during senate hearings in 1977. The hearings were prompted by the seven boxes of documents containing some eight thousand pages that the CIA had turned up earlier that same year in response to a FOIA request.
The heavily censored documents surfaced in early 1977 even when Richard Helms, Director of the CIA from June 30, 1966 – February 2, 1973, had ordered all documentation pertaining to MKUltra destroyed during his tenure.
The new documents survived only due to a clerical error. They are budgetary data and give little additional information from what had already been obtained by the Rockefeller Commission and the Church Committee. Some surviving information pertaining to MKUltra was officially declassified in July 2001.
The legend of MKUltra began at the end of 1974, when journalist Seymour Hersh, in an article published in the New York Times, accused the CIA of conducting experiments on American citizens and of sundry other nefarious acts on American soil during the sixties. In the beginning of 1975, responding to national outrage, President Gerald Ford convened The United States President’s Commission on CIA Activities within the United States. Ford’s commission was known as the Rockefeller Commission because it was headed by then Vice President Nelson Rockefeller.
Considering the Rockefeller Foundation’s well known relationship with Ira Einhorn, self-proclaimed “planetary catalyst” and no doubt MKUltra poster boy, if not Puharich himself, a Rockefeller investigation was not going to please the assorted senators and congressman who had any idea of what had been going on.
Click here to open the above: Original file
They launched their own investigation formally titled The United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, known simply as the Church Committee, because it was chaired by Senator Frank Church. Admiral Stansfield Turner served as the Director of the CIA from 1977 to 1981. It was his job to run damage control during the reformism of the Carter Administration. A Christian Scientist and reformist himself, he was highly critical of the Agency’s culture of secrecy. Turner would eventually advocate the dismantling of the CIA in the 2005 book titled Burn Before Reading: Presidents, CIA Directors, and Secret Intelligence.
As the acting Director of the CIA in the seventy-seven senate hearings, Turner testified that there were “149 MKULTRA subprojects, many of which appear to have some connection with research into behavioral modification, drug acquisition and testing, or administering drugs surreptitiously.” (5)
Seemingly lost in all the ramifications of the mind control experiments was what Turner said a few sentences later about there also having been “thirty-three additional sub-projects concerning certain intelligence activities previously funded under MKULTRA but which have nothing to do either with behavioral modifications, drugs or toxins, or any closely related matter .” (6)
Turner goes on to testify that there were “eighty institutions where work was done.” The institutions included “forty-four colleges or universities, fifteen research foundation or chemical or pharmaceutical companies or the like, twelve hospitals or clinics, in addition to those associated with the universities, and three penal institutions.” (7)
Seemingly, the rest of the hearings consisted of a visibly penitent Turner and his CIA entourage being chastised by a blustering Senator Ted Kennedy and assorted other political grandstanders. As it had been in seventy-five and seventy-six, the human experimentation, voluntary and otherwise, was blamed on Dr. Sidney Gottlieb and the CIA’s Technical Services Staff (TSS).
Gottlieb had retired in 1972, and as it turned out, had a really bad memory. He was not in Turner’s entourage. All Turner could do is look remorseful, as the incredulous Kennedy asked him why: “every single document that the staff reviews has Mr. Gottlieb’s name on it, and you come to tell us that we don’t have to worry any more, we have these other final facts, and Mr. Gottlieb has not been talked to?” (8)
Dr. Sidney Gottlieb – whose real name was Joseph Scheider – was a club-footed Jew from the Bronx. His degree in chemistry was from the California Institute of Technology, better known as Caltech; the progenitor of Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL). Caltech continues to manage and operate JPL to this very day, much in the same way that JPL manages and operates NASA.
Gottlieb would have been attending Caltech right about the time Jack Parsons was putting JPL together with Theodore von Kármán, the Jewish aerodynamics genius, who fled Germany in the early thirties to assume the Directorship of Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at Caltech. Kármán was a direct descendant of the Maharal of Prague; Judah Loew ben Bezalel, a legendary master Qabalist from the sixteenth century.
Like Delgado, Gottlieb had been born to play his part. When he showed up at their door in 1951 at age thirty-three seeking gainful employment as a poison expert, the CIA must have thought he had been sent by central casting. Pale, gaunt and expressionless, Gottlieb could have taught Peter Lorre a thing or two about creepy. If he had been born a decade or two earlier he would have been sitting in Rosie Gold’s candy store at the corner of Saratoga and Livonia Ave in Brooklyn, playing cards while fingering the ice pick in his pocket, waiting for an assignment from Murder Incorporated.
According to Wikipedia, Gottlieb was known in the TSS as the “Black Sorcerer” and the “Dirty Trickster.” Others say he was known affectionately as ‘The Gimp,’ by friends he didn’t kill. When he retired, he became very elusive and for a while ran a leper colony in India with his wife. He died in 1999, spending the final years of his life caring for terminal patients at a hospice.
Earlier, during the Rockefeller Commission and Church Committee, what the CIA could not blame on Gottlieb, they had blamed on Dr. Ewen Cameron. Cameron was a fanatical anglophile and Scotchman. He was in attendance at the Nuremberg Trails and had a pathological hatred of Germans, which he justified through his pseudoscientific theories. In his 1948 book Life is For Living, Cameron advocated preventing Germans from having children, or rising to any kind of position of authority because they were genetically and culturally predisposed to war.
Ironically enough, considering the charges that have been leveled against National Socialism, Cameron’s ideas were based on Eugenics. Cameron envisioned an Anglo-empire free of Germans and strictly regulated by Behavioral science. His “Psychic Driving” techniques, in order to produce personality splits, redefine torture as a fine art. He is described as an enthusiastic sadist and general practitioner of every imaginable manner of medical malevolence by anyone who had ever watched him ‘work,’ let alone came under the misfortune of being in his ‘care.’
Cameron was actually quite insane himself and considering Operation Paper Clip must have been a big hit in CIA social circles. When he died abruptly in 1967, climbing a mountain, making him an ideal fall guy, an autopsy probably should have been done.
Much of what was obtained through the FOIA had been blackened out, and Turner refused to name at least twenty-one of the institutions and many of the names of the individual researchers involved in MKUltra.
He cited Exemption 3 of the FOIA – which stipulates that the agency does not have to disclose “matters that are . . . specifically exempted from disclosure by statute . . . provided that such statute . . . refers to particular types of matters to be withheld.” The CIA contended that the information requested fell under Exemption 3, 102(d) (3) of the National Security Act of 1947, which states that “the Director of Central Intelligence shall be responsible for protecting intelligence sources and methods from unauthorized disclosure.” (9)
The legal wrangling continued well into 1985, when the Supreme Court would finally make a decision in the CIA v. SIMS No. 83-1075. The court said “We hold that the Director of Central Intelligence properly invoked 102(d) (3) of the National Security Act of 1947 to withhold disclosure of the identities of the individual MKULTRA researchers as protected ‘intelligence sources.’
We also hold that the FOIA does not require the Director to disclose the institutional affiliations of the exempt researchers in light of the record which supports the Agency’s determination that such disclosure would lead to an unacceptable risk of disclosing the sources’ identities.” (10)
Factoring in the Supreme Court decision it can safely be concluded that the CIA’s internal memoranda on MKUltra have remained undisclosed to this day, except for the ones they want disclosed.
In an internal memorandum to the Director, released with the FOIA documents in seventy-seven, the CIA evaluates the documentation itself as harmless. David S. Brandwein, the then Director of the TSS, crows to his Director that there was nothing in the “newly located files that would indicate the MKULTRA activities were more extensive or more controversial than indicated by the Senate Select (Church) Committee Report. If anything, the reverse is true.” (11) A smug Brandwein then goes on in the memo to urge his Director to “Release appropriately sanitized material”, first to the Senate then to the lawyers. (12)
Alfred W. McCoy — acknowledged by Wikipedia and practically everyone else as the world’s leading authority on “underworld crime syndicates and international political surveillance” — is adamant that the CIA deliberately misdirected the attention of the MKUltra investigations to its most “ridiculous” programs. In McCoy’s opinion, this was done in order distract unwanted scrutiny of the project’s primary focus, which he feels were torture techniques. (13)
Regardless of its true intentions, what does appear to have been spoon-fed by the CIA to those inquiring about MKUltra is the impression of intelligence operatives behaving like frat boys on Easter Vacation. The premise is that professional spies, the best in the world, many with decades of service in war zones, were indiscriminately dosing each other and everyone else in their vicinity with their brand new toy from Sandoz Laboratory’s; LSD. Just a classic case of Spooks Gone Wild and boys will be boys…
Initially everybody in the TSS was required to take LSD. Two agents would administer the drug to themselves, then they would sit in a closed room and each would take notes on how the drug affected the other. This quickly progressed to agent’s surreptitiously dosing each other’s morning coffee.
One agent is known to have run down DC Streets screaming in terror as he fled the monsters he saw in every car. But by far the most notorious case was the strange death of Dr. Frank Olson. (14) In the early morning hours of November 28, 1953 Olson, a bacteriologist and biological warfare specialist out of Camp Detrick [Fort Detrick] and deployed into the MKUltra project by way of the TSS, plunged from the thirteenth floor of the Hotel Statler splattering on the pavement below like a bug on a car windshield. The macabre spectacle, perhaps a statement, played out right in front of Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. He was under the supervision of his TSS Deputy Director Robert Lashbrook, who was the only one in the room when local authorities arrived. He had been sharing the room with Olson.
Lashbrook claimed to have been sleeping when Olson took the plunge. When the hotel manager, who got up to the room first, told Lashbrook his friend was now a stain on the pavement outside, Lashbrook went to the telephone, rang a number and said “Olson’s gone.” He then hung up went into the bathroom and sat on the toilet with his head in his hands.
Olson, as the story would eventually turn out, had been slipped some LSD by then TSS Director Gottlieb at a meeting in a Maryland farmhouse nine days earlier. Olson suffered a nervous breakdown. Absurdly enough Lashbrook then took him to New York City to get treatment from Dr. Harold Abramson, an allergist and pediatrician, who worked for the CIA…
Not at all surprisingly the death was ruled a suicide. When the incident was brought to public attention by the Rockefeller Commission in seventy-five, perhaps as a compensatory exercise, Olson’s family was invited to the White House for a personal apology from President Ford and given 750,000 dollars, (15) the maximum amount allowable under United States law.
In 1988 the CIA would pay Cameron’s Canadian victims the same sum. That money was released over the objections of Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney’s rabidly conservative government which seemingly had every intention of dragging it out in the Canadian courts until the litigants died of old age. CIA director William Webster is quoted as saying “Sometimes you see the right thing to do, and you do it.” (16)
The cash wasn’t good enough for Olson’s son who in the mid-nineties, after his mother died, had his father’s body exhumed and autopsied. The autopsy was performed by Dr. James Starrs, Professor of Law and Forensic Science at The National Law Centre, George Washington University. Contrary to the original medical report, Starrs found no cuts and abrasions on the body as would have been caused by diving through a window. (17) What Starrs did find was a hematoma on the left side of Olson’s skull which he speculated was caused by a hammer, the same hammer that would have been used to break the window in preparation for Olson’s early morning flying lesson. He concluded that the forensics were “rankly and starkly suggestive of homicide.” (18)
Olson got his Ph.D. in Bacteriology in 1938 by way of the University of Wisconsin (UW). Afterwards he served as a captain in the Army Chemical Corps. Those who now serve in the Chemical Corps are called Dragon Soldiers, after its blue and gold regimental insignia approved in 1986 to replace the old one of a cobalt blue enamel benzene ring superimposed over two crossed gold retorts. The old one had been in service since WWI. The new regimental insignia is emblazoned with the Latin motto Elementis Regamus Proelium: “Let us rule the battle by means of the elements.” The bottom left hand corner of the insignia depicts a gnarled tree stump such as those found in the no man’s lands of WW I battlefields. The top right hand corner depicts the rampant chlorine breathing Green Dragon of Alchemists from which the dragon soldiers take their name. (19)
By 1943, Olson was a civilian. It was as a civilian that he was recruited by Ira Baldwin to work in the Army Biological Warfare Laboratories at Camp Detrick. Baldwin had been Olson’s departmental advisor at UW and was working closely with the military and George W. Merck to establish a top secret biological weapons program for America.
Merck, an alumnus of Harvard, was the son and heir of Friedrike Merck who emigrated from Germany in 1891 to establish E. Merck and Company on 62 Wall Street. Before WWI, E. Merck and Company was a subsidiary of the German chemical colossus Merck KGaA. After ten years Olson was the Army Biological Warfare Laboratories senior bacteriologist. Sometime during all this he became an employee of the CIA in the TSS. (20)
The official story of Olson’s death was vague, to say the least. The CIA even gave him a closed casket funeral ostensibly because his head was so badly lacerated. Lashbrook, though in attendance at the funeral, never even bothered to tell Olson’s family that he was actually in the room on the night Olson exited through the window. (21)
From 1950 to fifty-three, Olson had been commuting regularly to England, collaborating with British microbiologists at Porton Down. Near Salisbury in Wiltshire, Porton Down is England’s real-life answer to fictions Frankenstein’s Castle. (22) There the empire’s homegrown mad scientists played with their newest toys acquired as dividends from the Third Reich in the aftermath of WWII. Among this treasure of horrors was tabun, sarin and soman; at the time the most lethal nerve agents known to man.
During his time with them, Olson witnessed the British carry on what the CIA not so euphemistically dubbed “terminal experiments.”
In at least one known case the British murdered one of their own soldiers, an unwitting volunteer who thought he was participating in research to cure the common cold. According to witnesses, he died horribly frothing at the mouth and contorting in agony like a slug doused with salt. They were attempting to ascertain just how much of the German nerve agents it would take to kill a man… (23)
Olson reported the disturbing impressions left on him by what he had seen at Porton Down to Harley Street psychiatrist; Dr. William Sargant, the finest psychiatrist in all England. Of course, Sargant was also under the auspices of British Intelligence. Sargant, in his capacity as an operative for MI 6, dutifully assessed Olson as a security risk right then and there. (24)
Sometime in the summer of fifty-three Olson took one of his frequent trips to Germany. What he saw there changed him, spooked him real bad… The people who knew him said he was a changed man when he got back to England. He could no longer go on in the capacity of senior bacteriologist in the MKUltra Program. He went back to Sargant and told him he wanted out of the CIA. Sargant, ever the loyal soldier of empire, immediately reported Olson to his MI 6 handler. (25)
It’s a foregone conclusion that Olson was a dead man walking after that.
Olson, obviously not a diplomat, had been issued a diplomatic passport back in April of 1950. This enabled him to carry pouches that were not subject to customs searches. It has recently been insinuated by Annie Jacobsen in her book, Operation Paperclip, that Olson had been taking full advantage “flying to Frankfurt and making the short drive out to Camp King.” There, according to documents obtained through the FOIA and interviews with Olson’s former partner Norman Cournoyer, Olson as an agent of empire used “unconventional interrogation techniques on Soviet prisoners.” (26)
It has always been assumed, because the CIA has always insinuated, that Olson was using mind altering drugs in terminal experiments on Soviet spies captured by the Gehlen Organization the forerunner and progenitor of Germany’s federal intelligence agency Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND). But Olson would have been acting under the instructions of the former Deputy Surgeon General of the Third Reich; the notorious Dr. Kurt Blome. (27) Blome’s war time field of expertise was well known to be bacteriology.
Over and over again in what has become the academically orthodox lore of MKUltra there is the repetitive theme of “Acid Dreams.” (28) It’s well documented that LSD was used at Camp King but there were other far more nefarious and terrible things taking place there and being transplanted back into the empire by the personnel of Porton Down, Camp Detrick and Edgewood…
Olson was a bacteriologist, the senior one in the program. If anybody was dosing personnel with LSD at that high a level for the CIA at that time it would have been Puharich, their premier expert on those matters. By early 1953, Puharich had been “redrafted,” after presenting a paper to the Pentagon about clairvoyance on behalf of Essentia Research Associates. He was serving at the rank of Captain out of the Army Chemical Center in Edgewood in Maryland.
Edgewood Arsenal, part of Aberdeen Proving Ground, is one of the most secret military bases in America and has been for a very long time. The high and foreboding fence stretching around its approximately thirteen thousand acres attests to that right from the first impression. It is the playground of the Army Chemical Corps. Located in a secluded area on the Chesapeake Bay it is twenty miles out of Baltimore and just about seventy from Camp Detrick.
All through the late forties and the fifties Edgewood, through Operation Paperclip, was the destination for an eclectic assortment of the Reich’s most malevolent mad scientists.
Much of the human experimentation for MKUltra was taking place there under the orchestration of Dr. Ray Treichler, assistant director of Edgewood’s Medical Laboratories and an employee of the TSS. Dr. Harold Abramson the allergist who is on record as being Olson’s “therapist” in NYC and as it would turn out flight instructor, was working out of Edgewood. (29)
Ira Einhorn – now convicted of Holly Maddux’s murder and doing life – insists Puharich, his onetime mentor and benefactor, was Gottlieb or the Gimps go-to guy on hallucinogenics. Einhorn now claims Puharich was involved up to his neck in Olson’s terminal pre dawn flying session. (30)
Not even the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) charged during Paperclip and Project 63 with bringing National Socialist scientists to America at all costs could get Dr Kurt Blome in. Hollywood could not have invented a better evil Nazi genius. Blome actually bragged to Alsos Agents how he had intended to let the Soviets have it with the Bubonic Plague under a 1943 directive from Heinrich Himmler that planned to ignore Adolph Hitler’s moratorium on biological and chemical weapons in the Third Reich. The Soviets overrunning Blome’s lab before he could get it going was the only thing that stopped him.
It was a matter of public record and still is that Blome directed all manner of atrocities against the Poles while experimenting with biological warfare behind Hitler’s back on the eastern front. Blome’s method of treating Poles incapacitated by tuberculosis was to kill them. At times, he had even used the Plague to ‘euthanize’ those that were too sick to work in the camps.
Yet Blome was acquitted of all charges at his 1947 Nuremberg trial, and two months later, four representatives from Camp Detrick and the CIA’s biological warfare program showed up in Germany to interview him. What he told them about biological warfare no doubt made them swoon, but because of the statements he had made to Alsos he was “inadmissible for immigration” to America. Instead after all legal wrangling failed; Blome was put to work in 1951 for the Army Chemical Corps as the lead doctor at Camp King. (31)
To this very day the CIA routinely gives the Glomar Response to FOIA requests for documentation about what Blome told the agents from Camp Detrick and exactly what he was overseeing for the Army Chemical Corps at Camp King. (32)
After lengthy legal battles in 1976, the U.S. District Court of Appeals upheld the CIA’s right to answer journalist Harriet Phillippi’s FOIA request for information about the research ship Glomar Explorer by simply saying that “it can neither confirm nor deny the existence of the requested documents.” The CIA now makes standard use of this sentence to legally brush off FOIA requests to which it doesn’t want to comply, without invoking Exemption 3, 102(d) (3) of the National Security Act.
It’s known from an April 18, 1944 entry in the diaries of the executed Wolfram Sievers; Reichsgeschäftsführer or managing director of Ahnenerbe that Blome was carrying out experiments in neutron radiation. An April 26, 1944 entry shows Blome was also contemplating human experimentation with bacterial pathogens although it doesn’t say what pathogens nor does it give any details as to exactly what Blome was doing with the neutron radiation. (33)
But it is known that during his interview with the agents from Camp Detrick, Blome recommended the use of Serratia marcescens; an Enterobacteriaceae as is Yersinia pestis the bacterial pathogen that causes the Bubonic Plague and a perennial favorite of Blome. (34)
In September of 1950, a navy minesweeper drifted silently a couple of miles off the coast of San Francisco for six days. It sprayed clouds of Serratia marcescens into the city’s fabled fog, both mingled together and rolled inland to saturate its unsuspecting residents.
Dubbed Operation Sea Spray by the Navy and labeled a ‘vulnerability test’, this first recorded excursion into madness by America’s armed forces is little known until this day. A week later, eleven patients were being treated in Stanford University Hospital for severe urinary tract infections resistant to all known antibiotics. One would die when the S marcescens colonized his heart. (35)
The Navy, quite pleased with itself, would reckon it had infected not only all of San Francisco but Albany, Berkeley, Daly City, Colma, Oakland, San Leandro, and Sausalito too. It estimated that some eight hundred thousand residents, many of them the most important people in the West’s burgeoning defense industry, each inhaled millions of the insidious bacteria throughout the testing period. (36)
A 1951 report reads: “It was noted that a successful BW [biological warfare] attack on this area can be launched from the sea, and that effective dosages can be produced over relatively large areas.” (37) In a recently declassified 1952 navy training film, the Navy is shown enthusiastically attacking the coast of San Francisco with what it laments to be “a rather crude spraying system.” (38)
Later in the same film, the navy uses “fluorescent tracer particles” to attack the southeast coast of the United States by sea; covering what it estimated to be some twenty-thousand square miles of inland Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina by taking advantage of favorable wind conditions off the coast. (39)
Fluorescent tracer particles were a euphemism, at the time being used by America and England, for zinc cadmium sulphide. Cadmium had been classified by both the British and Americans as a chemical weapon since WWII.
They were just getting started. In 1962 the Kennedy Administration, acting on a directive issued in January of sixty-one by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, authorized America’s Department of Defense (DoD) to launch Project 112; a comprehensive and highly classified ‘testing’ program that over fifty years later Americans still know nothing about.
Project 112, along with its spinoff Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense), officially authorized the ghouls at Camp Detrick and their dragon soldier counterparts to attack their own comrades in arms and the very citizens they were supposed to be protecting with chemical and bacteriological weapons; euphemistically called simulates.
The project was run in conjunction with similar ones being carried out throughout the length and breadth of the empire from Canada to Australia, and from America to Great Britain. Unbeknownst to the enlisted sailors aboard them, at least thirteen American warships were exposed by simulated attack to both chemical and biological weapons under Project Shad alone.
The DoD never publicly considered let alone acknowledged the long-term consequences to the health of the sailors onboard those ships. In fact, the existence of Project 112 and Project SHAD were categorically denied by the military until May 2000, when a CBS Evening News investigative report exposed them.
The ‘tests’ were global, with much of Project SHAD taking place in the South Pacific, but they were coordinated and orchestrated by the Army Chemical Corps operating out of the Deseret Test Center at Fort Douglas, Utah. Administrative support came from the Dugway Proving Ground, about 80 miles away, bypassing the usual Defense Department channels and reporting directly to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and US Cabinet consisting of the Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State and to a far lesser extent the Secretary of Agriculture. Deseret Test Center was in operation from 1962-1973.
‘Simulation experiments’ on American citizens would continue officially till 1966. In all likelihood, the carnage continued till 1969, when President Nixon theoretically put an end to it with a presidential order, which “unequivocally” halted germ warfare research and the stockpile of biological agents.
Until 1966, America’s armed forces are known to have biologically and chemically attacked its own citizens at least 239 times in eight American cities, among them New York City the world’s financial center… (40)
Not to be outdone by the antics of the colonies, Great Britain’s Ministry of Defense (MoD) unleashed the madmen of Porton Down right into their own living room.
One sixty-page report alone issued at the turn of the twenty-first century lists a hundred such attacks – always euphemistically called experiments – by the MoD on British citizens. In the Fluorescent Particle Trials from 1955 to 1963 residents of Cornwall were bombed by air and Somerset sprayed by truck, like mosquitoes, with zinc cadmium sulphide, a known cause of lung cancer. (41)
At the same time the British were carrying on the Fluorescent Particle Trials, America was performing the Large Area Coverage ‘experiments’ known as Operation LAC and carried out from the end of 1957 into 1958. This time, the Army Chemical Corps used a C119, or flying boxcar borrowed from the air force to make repetitive runs over America’s heartland, saturating most of the US and a good part of Canada with zinc cadmium sulphide. (42)
From 1961 to 1968 during England’s Large Area Coverage Trials, more than a million people along the south coast of England, from Torquay to New Forest, were attacked by sea with e.coli and bacillus globigii, said to be mimics of anthrax. In a joint effort with their American counterparts’ British scientists sprayed the hapless residents of South Dorset from 1971-1975 with “massive quantities of serratia marcescens.” (43)
There is every reason to believe Blome’s little pet was also the bacterium of choice in The Sabotage Trials, which took place from fifty-two to sixty-four. On the flimsiest of excuses, again to check target vulnerability, government buildings and the London subway system including the one under Whitehall were targeted and attacked with bacterial ‘markers’ by the lunatics from Porton Down. (44)
The few in the West that are aware of America and England’s environmental modifications in the thirty years following WW II and are not clinically insane are being told Serratia marcescens produces a bright reddish orange tripyrrole pigment called Prodigiosin, which makes it easy to track when used as a marker in bacteriological warfare tests. Most of the literature available to the public tells them that prior to the fifties, S marcescens was considered a harmless nonpathogenic “saprophyte.” (45)
This is nonsense, as by 1896 it was already known in Germany that the “organism contributed to more deaths than many pathogenic bacteria.” (46)
Blome very well may have been using Serratia marcescens as a marker on enemy troop formations and experiments with captured Soviets and Poles, but he would never have recommended it to be used as such by his new benefactors within their own borders on their own citizens.
Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium. That means, simply, the mesh like layer called Peptidoglycan, encasing the cell’s plasma membrane, will not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining test after being washed with alcohol. Gram-positive bacteria has a much thicker Peptidoglycan layer which constitutes around 90% of its dry weight as opposed to only about 10% in Gram-negative bacteria.
Gram-positive bacteria is more sensitive to ionizing radiations than Gram-negative bacteria, (47) making it far less likely to survive Radiation Mutagenesis; a process by which the genetic information of the bacteria is changed through exposure to ionizing radiations. (48)
In the case of neutron radiation, a form of indirect ionizing radiation which Blome was no doubt treating his pets with, it causes radiation enhanced diffusion. Over time in inorganic substances such as zirconia, urania, spinels, pyrochlores, and silicon carbide; ceramics used in the construction of particle accelerators and reactors, enhanced diffusion leads to what is called ‘Microstructural Evolution.’ (49)
What is above board about Microstructural Evolution, which is really very little, is that the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is handing out the choicest of government grants to the most gifted of atomic scientists who chose to work in that field.
Called 3-D printing or additive manufacturing by the ONR it is the technology depicted by Puharich disciple Gene Roddenberry in his landmark television series Star Trek. Instead of building, say a propeller as the ONR does in its explanation, by subtracting material, as is done in machining; material is layered on by fusing it together at the atomic level. (50)
In Star Trek, when Scotty needs a new part for his warp drive, he simply punches a bar code into the ship’s computer and the part is waiting for him a few hours later, built from atoms by the computer. According to Roddenberry this technology is at least 250 years in the future but the ONR is far more optimistic. Besides anticipating near future “dividends both in the marketplace and as cultural modification” they are predicting that “the next 30 years will see a dramatic increase in our ability to create parts on demand.” (51)
Roddenberry – who aside from his relationship with the ever-dubious Puharich – was also taking advice on his scripts from the perhaps even more dubious, if that’s possible, Rand Corporation... (52)
This did not begin in the bowels of the now forever sealed underground citadels of National Socialism, although no doubt that is where its metathesis took place. It all began at the University of Wisconsin almost a decade before WW II, ostensibly before another world war was even a gleam in anyone’s eyes. The original bacterial strains were brought from UW to Camp Detrick by Baldwin. In all likelihood UW is also responsible for transporting its little prize across the ocean to Porton Downs. (53)
The army has destroyed all records of what it was doing at Camp Detrick from 1942–1955 and anybody who could say is conveniently dead. But a note found in the archive of Baldwin’s papers, dated February 19, 1943, contained an order from a Dr. Fildes for a batch of B. subtilis spores. Sir Paul Fildes was the lead bacteriologist in the British Biological Weapons program.
The empires original bacteria of choice was apparently B. subtilis var. niger, what they were calling “red strain.” (54) This is just a misnomer in the taxonomic classification, perhaps deliberate. The name of the bacteria is most appropriately B. atrophaeus var. globigii, the closest known relative of Bacillus subtilis. (55)
B subtilis is also called grass bacillus because it is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants like cattle; an animal that in America for the last fifty years has been turning up with alarming frequency dead and surgically mutilated. Nobody has ever been caught doing it and the animals usually have their blood, various internal organs and their anuses removed…
B subtilis is referred to by Wikipedia as “one of the bacterial champions in secreted enzyme production.” Outside a barrage of extremely complicated microbiology tests and the fact that it will not readily swap DNA with it, the ‘military strain’ can only be distinguished from B. subtilis by its black color, reminiscent of the sentient “oil” in the X Files…
In lieu of the facts information available to the public would have them believe that the empire was searching for a suitable bacterium to be used as a marker for Bacillus anthracis so they could run field experiments. Nothing could be more absurd.
B anthracis is a pop gun. It was used by the Japanese against the Chinese in Manchuria during the Thirties and early Forties with little to no effect. It is deadly to animals, not humans. Just like Blome, whom they were exchanging information with, the Japanese found the plague to be far more effective. (56)
By 1944, B anthracis could already be treated with Penicillin. (57) In fact Fildes had done live testing with it on the island of Gruinard, located off the northwest coast of Scotland, in forty-two and forty-three. He had five million cattle cakes laced with B anthracis and ready to be dropped on Germany. It was estimated the cakes would kill 30% of Germany’s cattle. (58)
But Fildes never did get to drop his anthrax cattle cakes on the Germans. No doubt allied high command knew very well that Blome would have gleefully responded, this time with Hitler’s blessing, by using the plague to kill more than 30% of Great Britain’s people…
The forensic evidence used by bacteriologists to pinpoint the taxonomy of the Camp Detrick strain indicates the bacteria was mutated over and over again at Camp Detrick, Porton Down, Edgewood and the Dugway Proving Grounds. (59)
The best bacteriologists America and Britain had to offer were working night and day on this. After the war the CIA would end up tossing its own senior bacteriologist, Frank Olsen, out a window right in front of Madison Square Garden to maintain secrecy. During the war, the empire was in the middle of a life and death struggle with National Socialism. Its Biological Weapons Program was just as important as the Manhattan Project, if not more so. They were looking for a weapon that would win.
It’s a documented fact that the empires bacteriologists were cultivating strains that exhibited elevated rates of sporulation. (60) When certain types of bacteria, almost exclusively Gram positive, are unable to tolerate their environment and they have exhausted every option to adapt they produce endospores.
The bacterium divides within its cell wall. One side then absorbs the other. What is left is an almost indestructible multilayered vessel containing the genetic material, cytoplasm, necessary enzymes and whatever else it needs to sustain activity that is now ten million times slower than the metabolic rate of a growing bacterium. When the mother cell dies, the cell wall degrades and the endospore is freed. This is called sporulation. When conditions become more hospitable the endospore, not completely dormant, senses the change and reverses the process transforming itself back into a vegetative cell. (61)
No one knows how long bacteria can survive as endospores. Claims have been made for the revival of endospores that are forty million years old. (62) B. subtilis is the undisputed world champion of sporulation…
Bacteriologists have always considered gram negative bacteria incapable of sporulation because it lacked the hard outer shell necessary to produce endospores. But recently wastewater from a sewage treatment tank in Saku, Japan was analyzed and found to contain an endospore-forming bacterium that produced S marcescens signature red pigment Prodigiosin. (63)
The bacterium was also able to hydrolyze cooked meat; in other words decompose it and split it into other compounds by reacting with water. These are tell-tale indications that it is S marcescens, but endospores have never been found before in any Serratia. They are characteristic of Bacillus which is always present in abundance in sewage treatment tanks, (64) particularly B subtilis, which is used to normalize the pH of wastewater.
Using S. marcescens and B. subtilis as controls comparison tests were run and the mysterious bacterium was found to be a new subspecies of S. marcescens; dubbed KREDT. This is the first recorded instance of an Enterobacteriaceae, the large family of extremely dangerous pathogens to which both S. marcescens and Yersinia pestis belong, ever producing endospores. It is believed that due to the presence of high concentrations of magnesium and silicate in the treatment water the S. marcescens was able to swap genes with the Bacillus (65)
B subtilis may well be one of the bacterial champions in secreted enzyme production, but as Blome well knew, it’s not even playing in the same league as S. marcescens.
S. marcescens is the pinkish oily film that appears in bathrooms that aren’t disinfected regularly. Wherever there is moisture, suitable temperatures and a lack of fresh air, no matter how extreme other environmental conditions, S. marcescens will not only survive, it will grow. It has been found flourishing in disinfectant, antiseptics, double distilled water and human blood. (66)
When growing in temperatures above 98o Fahrenheit, S. marcescens is pale white. When its nutrient requirements are met, the intensity of the red pigmented prodigiosin in individual cells is regulated by population density, making the prodigiosin itself what microbiologists call an autoinducer.
In bacteria autoinducers regulate the way genes are expressed. It is believed that Bacteria use autoinducers the same way insects use pheromones. Both constitute a language expressed through chemical manipulation at a molecular level by which the communal intelligence of a hive or colony is coordinated. Science refers to this as Quorum Sensing.
Dozens of scholarly papers have been written on S. marcescens use of prodigiosin as a means of quorum sensing. Dozens more have been written about the uses of quorum sensing in robotics. All the way back in 2006 a hundred and four page presentation was delivered at the Bio Micro and Nanosystems Conference in San Francisco titled “Swarm intelligence for cooperation of bio-nano robots using quorum sensing.” (67)
Pathogens have been known to hijack their host’s body through the molecular manipulation of chemicals. In a most extreme case the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sometimes referred to as the Zombie fungus turns its host, an ant, into a zombie that lives only to serve the life cycle of its parasite. The ant leaves its life with its colony in the tree to live in the dank dark places of the rainforest floor as if it were a fungus. Finally it crawls up and out on a branch, clasps its mandibles to a leaf and dies as the fungus bursts through its head and spores.
In the case of the parasitic worms Spinochordodes tellinii and Paragordius tricuspidatus, they force their cricket or grasshopper host to leap into a body of water and drown. The worm then emerges from the insects floating corpse to swim away and find a mate. Studies of P. tricuspidatus have shown that it produces effector molecules that manipulate the cricket’s central nervous system. S. tellinii reproduces proteins used in the insects signaling pathways. These chemical signals by which the parasite hijacks the body of its host are called mimetic molecules. (68)
Scientific studies have shown mosquitoes carrying Plasmodium falciparum, the parasitic protozoa that causes malaria, not only exhibit heightened predatory senses, but are three times as likely to be attracted to human odors. (69)
Toxoplasma gondii is the parasitic protozoon that causes toxoplasmosis; a disease found all over the world. Estimates suggest that over 30% of the world’s human population is infected. T gondii has been shown to alter behavior in infected rodents, its intermediate host which it uses as a vector, in order to increase the rodents’ chances of being eaten by a cat, its target host and the only animal in which it can sexually reproduce. Infected rodents lose all fear of cats, their greatest natural predator.
In humans, infection by T gondii is held in check by the immune system and Toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. But studies have shown a strong correlation between schizophrenia and the disease. Some studies have shown that women with toxoplasmosis are more likely to cheat on their husbands, men more likely to be aggressive, with slower reaction times for both sexes. (70)
Bacteria may be even more subtle in the manipulation of its host. Subtilis in Latin means to be finely spun, to be exact; to be minutely thorough, strict and precise. Bacteriologists now suspect that the microbiota in people’s stomachs may actually dictate behavior patterns in their human hosts that will more likely result in the bacteria getting their required nutrients. (71)
1 – Coppens, Phillip. “Chapter 1. A Man for All Psychics.” The stargate conundrum The US Government’s secret pursuit of the psychic drug.
2 – Ibid.
3 – Ibid.
4 – “Interim Report of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments” Appendix, pp. E-1.1 to 1.6, page 240 (as per PDF).
5 – “TESTIMONY OF ADM. STANSFIELD TURNER, DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE,” page 21 (as per PDF).
6 – Ibid.
7 – Ibid, page 23.
8 – Ibid, page 65.
9 – US Supreme Court. CIA v. SIMS. FindLaw, April 16, 1985, Web.
10 – Ibid.
11 – “Senate MKUltra Hearing: APPENDIX B, Documents Referring To Discovery Of Additional MKULTRA Material, page 147 (as per PDF), paragraph 3.
12 – Ibid, page 148, paragraph 7.
13– McCoy, Alfred (2006). A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation from the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York: Metropolitan Books. pp. 8, 22, 30.
14 – Lee, M. A., Shlain, B. (1985). Acid Dreams, the Complete Social History of LSD: the CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. Grove Press.
15 – Dowling, Kevin. Knightley, Phillip. “A secret that could destroy the CIA.” The London Mail. . (Aug 23, 1998.):. Web.
16 – McCOY, ALFRED W. “SCIENCE IN DACHAU’S SHADOW: HEBB, BEECHER, AND THE DEVELOPMENT.” CIA and Canada page 409. Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences. Vol. 43(4), 401–417, page 409. : Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 2007. Web.
17 – Albarelli, H. P. . “A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA’s Secret Cold War….” District Attorney Robert Morgenthau Investigation. (2009): Chapter 3. Web.
18 – Ibid.
19 – Mauroni, Albert J. Where are the WMDs?: The Reality of Chem-bio Threats on the Home Front and the Battlefront. Illustrated, Annotated. . : Naval Institute Press. , page 4. Print.
20 – Ignatieff, Michael (April 1, 2001). “What did the C.I.A. do to Eric Olson’s father?”. The New York Times Magazine.
21 – “CIA Secret Experiments: National Geographic Documentary: 6:00-7:17.” Youtube. Web. 10/2/2015.
22 – Ibid: 9:30-10:00
23 – Ibid: 10:00-13:23
24 – Ibid: 13:23-14:27
25 – Ibid: 21:50-22:44
26 – Jacobson, Annie. “What Cold War CIA Interrogators Learned from the Nazis.” The Daily Beast. (2/11/14): . Web.
27 – Ibid
28 – Lee, M. A., Shlain, B. (1985). Acid Dreams, the Complete Social History of LSD: the CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. Grove Press.
29 – Hunt, Linda. “SECRET AGENDA.” The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1944-1990. . (Pub Date: May 29th, 1991): pages 96-97. Web.
30 – Coppens, Phillip. “Chapter 1. A Man for All Psychics.” The stargate conundrum The US Government’s secret pursuit of the psychic drug.
31 – Hunt, Linda. “SECRET AGENDA.” The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1944-1990. . (Pub Date: May 29th, 1991): page 105. Web.
32 – Kaye, Jeffrey . “FOIA request regarding Kurt Blome files.” . March 5, 2014. MuckRock , Web. 10/8/2015.
33 – Deichmann, Ute . “Biologists Under Hitler.” Harvard University Press. Notes: #60. (1996): Page 417.
34 – Emory, Dave. “FTR #480 Plum Island, Lyme Disease and the Erich Traub File.” Spitfire . 479 and 480 in sequence. ( October 3, 2004): Point 16. Web.
35 – Kreston, Rebecca . “Blood & Fog: The Military’s Germ Warfare Tests in San Francisco.” Discover. June 28, 2015: . Web.
36 – Ibid.
37 – Ibid.
38 – “Naval concepts of chemical and biological warfare. 2:32.” Sage of Quay Radio. Web. 10/20/2015.
39 – Ibid. 3:50.
40 – Kreston, Rebecca . “Blood & Fog: The Military’s Germ Warfare Tests in San Francisco.”
41 – Barnett, Antony. “Millions were in germ war tests.” The Guardian. Politics (Sunday 21 April 2002 05.23 EDT): Web.
42 – Cole, Leonard A.. “Operation LAC and Zinc Cadmium Sulphide.” The Eleventh Plague. 1997: Chapter 2 pages 19-28. Web.
43 – Barnett, Antony. “Millions were in germ war tests.”
44 – Ibid.
45 – J Anía, MD, Basilio. “Serratia.” Medscape. (Oct 21, 2014): Web.
46 – Hejazi, A. Falkiner, F. R.. “Serratia marcescens.” Vol. 46. (1997): page 1. Web.
47 – Prasad, S. K. “Biological War.” Google books. (2009): page 118. Web.
48 – “Radiation Mutagenesis.” World of Microbiology and Immunology. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 22 Oct. 2015.
49 – “Radiation Effects in Nuclear Ceramics.” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2012. Hidawi Publishing Corporation. , Web. 10/23/15.
50 – Schuette, Dr. Lawrence C. (office of naval research, acting director of research). “3-D Printing Offers Unlimited Potential for Navy.” Navy Live (The Official Blog Of The United States Navy). May 18, 2013. Web.
51 – Ibid.
52 – Hap, Abrams . “The Rand Corporation.” Opsec News. 3/14/2013: . Web.
53 – Gibbons, Henry. “Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant.” (25 Mar 2011): Results (Historical investigations of BG provenance). Web.
55 – Ibid, Bioinformatic analysis of sequence data.
56 – Bergman , Nicholas H. (editor). “CHALENGES TO THE NORM.” Bacillus anthracis and Anthrax. (2011): Web.
57 – CDC. “A History of Anthrax.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (September 1, 2015): . Web.
58 – Spencer, RC. “Bacillus anthracis.” National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine . J Clin Pathol. 2003 Mar; 56(3): –187. . (2003): Web.
59 – Gibbons, Henry. “Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant.”
60 – Ibid, Discussion.
61 – “Sporulation.” World of Microbiology and Immunology. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 27 Oct. 2015.
62 – Cano, RJ; Borucki, MK (1995). “Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber.” Science 268: 1060–1064.
63 – Ajithkumar, Bindu. Vasudevan , P. Ajithkumar. Iriye, Ryozo . Doi, Yukio . Sakai, Tadashi. “Spore-forming Serratia marcescens subspsakuensis subsp. nov., isolated from a domestic.wastewater treatment tank.” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2003), 53, 253–258. (2003): Web.
64 – Ibid.
65 – Ibid.
66 – Hejazi, A.. Falkiner, F. R.. “Serratia marcescens.” Vol. 46. (1997): page 2. Web.
67 – Chandrasekaran, S. “Swarm intelligence for cooperation of bio-nano robots using quorum sensing.” Bio Micro and Nanosystems Conference, 2006. BMN ‘06. (15-18 Jan. 2006 ): Web.
68 – Biron, D. G, and others. “Behavioural manipulation in a grasshopper harbouring hairworm: a proteomics approach.” The Royal Society. . (Published 22 October 2005): . Web.
69 – Senthilingam, Meera . “Malaria bug may give mosquitoes a super sense of smell.” New Scientist . . (15 May 2013): . Web.
70 – “Toxoplasma Gondii.” Parasites In Humans; Find The Nastiest Parasites In Humans. 2010. Web.
71 – Norris, Vic, and others. “Hypothesis: Bacteria Control Host Appetites.” Journal for bacteriology (American society for microbiology). (2013): Web.